Pengertian Public Interest

The uk attempts to mark out companies like this, which it calls public interest entities (pies). However, the way pies are defined is a bit bizarre. From the name, you’d think a pie is any company that the british public has a substantial interest in. But officially, a pie is “an issuer whose transferable securities are admitted to trading. The definition of a “public interest entity” varies across member states. Special caution should be exercised when considering the definition of pie in any member state.

Beberapa diantaranya adalah john e. Marston dalam bukunya yang berjudul modern public relation, 1979: “public relations is planned, persuasive coomunication designed to influence significant public”. Dari pengertian tersebut kita bisa mengetahui bahwa public relation adalah sebuah rencana, konmunikasi yang bersifat mengajak dan juga. Selanjutnya kata public diartikan sebagai bukan perseorangan, meliputi orang banyak, berkaitan dengan atau mengenai suatu negara, bangsa, atau masyarakat, seperti digunakan dalam frase public finance (keuangan negara), public administration (tata usaha negara), public service (pelayanan publik), public transport (pengangkutan umum), public. Istilah publik diserap dari bahasa inggris public yang secara etimologis berasal dari bahasa latin, publicus yang berarti untuk orang for populicus. Populicus berasal dari kata populus yang berarti orang (people). The public interest, and plans and executes a program of action to earn public understanding an acceptances (public relations adalah fungsi manajemen. Public dan melaksanakan rencana kerja untuk memperoleh pengertian dan pengakuan public) (ardianto, 2014: Penjelasan diatas mengisyaratkan bahwa posisi.

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  • What is PUBLIC INTEREST What does PUBLIC INTEREST mean PUBLIC INTEREST meaning & explanation

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    What is PUBLIC INTEREST? What does PUBLIC INTEREST mean? PUBLIC INTEREST meaning - PUBLIC INTEREST definition - PUBLIC INTEREST explanation.

    Source: article, adapted under license.

    Public interest, according to the Random House Dictionary, is "1. the welfare or well-being of the general public; commonwealth. 2. appeal or relevance to the general populace: a news story of public interest."

    Economist Lok Sang Ho in his Public Policy and the Public Interest (Routledge, 2012, published 2011) argues that the public interest must be assessed impartially and, therefore, defines the public interest as the "ex ante welfare of the representative individual." Under a thought experiment, by assuming that there is an equal chance for one to be anyone in society and, thus, could benefit or suffer from a change, the public interest is by definition enhanced whenever that change is preferred to the status quo ex ante. This approach is "ex ante", in the sense that the change is not evaluated after the fact but assessed before the fact without knowing whether one would actually benefit or suffer from it.

    This approach follows the "veil of ignorance" approach, which was first proposed by John Harsanyi but popularized by John Rawls in his 1971 Theory of Justice. Historically, however, the approach can be traced to John Stuart Mill, who, in his letter to George Grote, explained that "human happiness, even one's own, is in general more successfully pursued by acting on general rules, than by measuring the consequences of each act; and this is still more the case with the general happiness, since any other plan would not only leave everybody uncertain what to expect, but would involve perpetual quarrelling..."

    The Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales argues that applying a detailed definition is likely to result in unintended consequences, in Acting in the Public Interest(2012). Instead, each circumstance needs to be assessed based on criteria such as the relevant public, wants, and constraints. The key to assessing any public interest decision is transparency of the decision-making process, including balancing competing interests.


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    Source: article, adapted under license.

    Public-interest immunity (PII), previously known as Crown privilege, is a principle of English common law under which the English courts can grant a court order allowing one litigant to refrain from disclosing evidence to the other litigants where disclosure would be damaging to the public interest. This is an exception to the usual rule that all parties in litigation must disclose any evidence that is relevant to the proceedings. In making a PII order, the court has to balance the public interest in the administration of justice (which demands that relevant material is available to the parties to litigation) and the public interest in maintaining the confidentiality of certain documents whose disclosure would be damaging. PII orders have been used in criminal law against large organised criminal outfits and drug dealers where the identity of paid police informants could be at risk.

    An order that PII applies would usually be sought by the British government to protect official secrets, and so can be perceived as a gagging order. Where a minister believes that PII applies, he signs a PII certificate, which then allows the court to make the final decision on whether the balance of public interest was in favour of disclosure or not. Generally, a court will allow a claim of PII without inspecting the documents: only where there is some doubt will the court inspect the documents to decide whether PII applies.

    Originally, a government minister was under a duty to advance a PII point where PII could be relevant, and the court took a certificate from a minister claiming PII as final and conclusive. However, over time, there has been an increase in both the ability of a minister to make a disclosure, notwithstanding the potential application of PII, and the ability of the courts to review a claim of PII. In Conway v Rimmer , the House of Lords held that the courts retained the final decision on whether PII should be upheld, and, in R v Chief Constable of West Midlands, ex parte Wiley , the House of Lords decided that a minister could discharge his duty by making his own judgment of where the public interest lies (that is, to disclose or to assert PII). In practice, this is thought to have led to a reduction in the number of cases when PII is asserted.

    PII was previously known as Crown Privilege, and derived from the same principle as the immunity of the Crown from prosecution before the Crown Proceedings Act 1947. However, PII is not limited to the Crown (see the NSPCC case mentioned below), and cannot be waived save in exceptional circumstances.

    A number of PII certificates were signed in relation to the prosecutions of individuals involved in the Matrix Churchill "Arms to Iraq" case, a subject that was subsequently investigated in the Scott Report.

    Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights protects the right to a fair trial; an "implied" right stemming from this is that of "equality of arms" – the idea that hearings should be adversarial and both parties should have access to the same evidence and witnesses. The European Court of Human Rights has held that Article 6 (especially the "implied" rights) is not an absolute right and that measures restricting the rights of the defence so as to safeguard an important public interest are lawful if "strictly necessary".

    It is of note that fewer PII certificates have been issued in recent years. For example, MI6 have not succeeded in obtaining a PII certificate since the 1995 Tomlinson case, and have thus been subject to court scrutiny for investigations such as the inquest into the death of the Princess of Wales, and allegations that their officers partook in torture.

  • Definisi dan Fungsi Public Relations: Nadia Wasta Utami, S.I.Kom., M.A (Komunikita Eps. 65)

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    Assalamualaikum Uniisyan!
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    Source: article, adapted under license.

    A community interest company (CIC) is a type of company introduced by the United Kingdom government in 2005 under the Companies (Audit, Investigations and Community Enterprise) Act 2004, designed for social enterprises that want to use their profits and assets for the public good. CICs are intended to be easy to set up, with all the flexibility and certainty of the company form, but with some special features to ensure they are working for the benefit of the community. They have proved popular and some 10,000 registered in the status's first 10 years.

    A community interest company is a business with primarily social objectives whose surpluses are principally reinvested for that purpose in the business or in the community, rather than being driven by the need to maximise profit for shareholders and owners. CICs tackle a wide range of social and environmental issues and operate in all parts of the economy. By using business solutions to achieve public good, it is believed that CICs have a distinct and valuable role to play in helping create a strong, sustainable and socially inclusive economy.

    CICs are diverse. They include social and community enterprises, social firms, mutual organisations such as co-operatives, and large-scale organisations operating locally, regionally, nationally or internationally.

    CICs must be limited companies of one form or another. A CIC cannot be a charity, an IPS or an unincorporated organisation.

    Regular limited liability companies that do not have charitable status find it difficult to ensure that their assets are dedicated to public benefit. There is no simple, clear way of locking assets of such a company to a public benefit purpose other than applying for charitable status. The community interest company is intended to meet this need.

    When a CIC is requested, the CIC regulator considers whether applications meet the criteria to become a CIC. If satisfied, the regulator advises the registrar in Companies House who, provided that all the documents are in order, will issue a certificate of incorporation as a CIC.

    A charity can convert to a CIC with the consent of the Charity Commission. In so doing it will lose its charitable status including tax advantages. A charity may own a CIC, in which case the CIC would be permitted to pass assets to the charity. CICs are more lightly regulated than charities but do not have the benefit of charitable status, even if their objects are entirely charitable in nature.

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  • Pengertian humas(memahami kehumasan) @fauzitayafada

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    Secara umum tugas utama humas adalah mempromosikan pengertian dan pengetahuan akan semua fakta tentang urutan situasi sehingga organisasi mendapatkan simpati dari situasi dan kejadian tersebut. Tugas pokok humas pada sebuah organisasi adalah: 1. Menciptakan Kesan/ Image Kesan yang didapatkan seseorang terhadap seseorang, produk, atau situasi, sesuai dengan tingkat pengetahuan orang tersebut. 2. Pengetahuan dan Pengertian Humas sangat berperan dalam memberikan informasi kepada publik internal dan publik eksternal dengan menyediakan informasi yang akurat dan dalam format yang mudah dipahami. 3. Menciptakan Ketertarikan (interest) Humas juga harus mampu menciptakan ketertarikan publik terhadap situasi tertentu yang berdampak besar pada organisasi. 4. Penerimaan Humas bertanggungjawab dalam memberikan penjelasan kepada publik atas situasi atau kejadian sehingga sikap menentang, ketidakpedulian yang ada di sekitarnya dapat berubah menjadi pengertian dan penerimaan. 5. Simpati Humas harus bisa menyampaikan informasi secara jelas kepada publik untuk meraih simpati. Meskipun demikian, kegiatan humas bukan berarti harus banyak menggelar konferensi pers atau mengundang wartawan demi membuat citra baik. Namun humas dituntut untuk membuat simbol komunikasi baik verbal maupun non-verbal. Contoh kegiatan verbal antara lain menulis artikel, proposal, presentasi, press release, membuat progress report dan sebagainya. Sementara komunikasi verbal bisa berupa open house, presenter, desk information, announcer dan lain-lain. Nah, untuk yang non-verbal devisi humas bisa membuat seminar, riset, penelitian, dan seterusnya. Jika dijabarkan sedikit lebih detail menjadi seperti berikut: 1. Customer Relations Divisi humas menciptakan hubungan baik dengan pihak di luar perusahaan, misalnya dengan konsumen. 2. Employee Relations Tidak hanya di luar perusahaan, humas juga wajib membangun komunikasi antara pimpinan dan bawahan. 3. Community Relations Community relation bertujuan menciptakan hubungan baik antara perusahaan dengan pihak terkait misalnya partner dan juga komunitas tertentu. 4. Government Relations Menciptakan hubungan baik antara organisasi dengan pemerintah. 5. Media Relations Media berperan penting dan harus dijembatani oleh humas perusahaan karena kebanyakan sumber citra perusahaan bersumber dari sini.
    In general, the main task of public relations is to promote understanding and knowledge of all the facts about the sequence of situations so that the organization gains sympathy from these situations and events. The main tasks of public relations in an organization are: 1. Creating an Impression The impression that a person gets of a person, product, or situation, according to the person's level of knowledge. 2. Knowledge and Understanding Public relations plays a very important role in providing information to the internal public and external public by providing accurate information and in an easy-to-understand format. 3. Creating Interest Public relations must also be able to create public interest in certain situations that have a major impact on the organization. 4. Acceptance Public relations is responsible for providing an explanation to the public for situations or events so that the attitude of opposition, indifference to those around them can turn into understanding and acceptance. 5. Sympathy Public relations must be able to convey information clearly to the public to gain sympathy. However, public relations activities do not mean having to hold many press conferences or invite journalists to create a good image. However, public relations are required to make communication symbols both verbal and non-verbal. Examples of verbal activities include writing articles, proposals, presentations, press releases, making progress reports and so on. While verbal communication can be in the form of open houses, presenters, desk information, announcers and others. Well, for the non-verbal, the public relations division can make seminars, research, research, and so on. If it is described in a little more detail, it becomes as follows: 1. Customer Relations The public relations division creates good relations with parties outside the company, for example with consumers. 2. Employee Relations Not only outside the company, public relations are also required to build communication between leaders and subordinates. 3. Community Relations Community relations aims to create good relations between the company and related parties such as partners and certain communities. 4. Government Relations Creating a good relationship between the organization and the government. 5. Media Relations Media plays an important role and must be bridged by the company's public relations because most sources of corporate image come from here.

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